The Celiac disease is one of the most common food intolerance and its prevalence is increasing (Gobbetti et al., 2018). Gluten is a mixture of proteins found in wheat and related grains, including barley, rye, oat and all their species and hybrids. People having an intolerance to gluten suffer from gastrointestinal problems including symptoms such
Due to the changes in human consumption and eating habit, the consumption of bread, and therefore of gluten, is decreasing. However, the number of people suffering from intolerances or allergies related to gluten constantly increases. Some nutritionists, like Marion Kaplan, even warn that by 2050, the whole population will be intolerant to gluten (Kaplan, 2018).
Studies conducted on consumer behaviour show that nowadays, people are more and more inclined to consume ready-to-eat meals and easy-to-prepare foods. The main key elements that act as a catalyst in the process of changing human diet are technological changes in the food industry, hectic lifestyles (time pressure) and low awareness of health threats (Contini,
An obvious trend that is threatening the bread market is the decreasing amount of bakeries. Since the last forty years, 40% of bakeries went bankrupt in France. Obviously there are many factors to be considered. However, but the biggest reason is the strong competition of big industrial bakeries and supermarkets (Fimbel-Bauer, 2019). The latter use